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The halo effect is a type of cognitive bias in which our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about his or her character Essentially your overall impression of a person ("He is nice!") impacts your evaluations of that person's specific traits ("He is also smart!") One great example of the halo effect in action is our overall impression of celebrities Since we perceive them as attractive successful and often likable we also tend to see them as intelligent kind. The narrow pavement which could accommodate a maximum of 12,000 per day was transformed into an enormous plaza that could hold in excess of 400,000.[95] Several months later the pavement close to the wall was excavated to a depth of two and half metres exposing an additional two courses of large stones.[96] There is a much publicised practice of placing slips of paper containing written prayers into the crevices of the Wall The earliest account of this practice is attributed to Rabbi Chaim ibn Attar (d 1743).[162] More than a million notes are placed each year[163] and the opportunity to e-mail notes is offered by a number of organisations.[164] It has become customary for visiting dignitaries to place. "the acceptance of the proposals had it been practicable would have obviated years of wretched humiliations including the befouling of the Wall and pavement and the unmannerly braying of the tragi-comic Arab band during Jewish prayer and culminating in the horrible outrages of 1929"[58] In early 1920 the first Jewish-Arab dispute over the Wall occurred when the Muslim authorities were carrying out minor repair works to the Wall’s upper courses The Jews while agreeing that the works were necessary appealed to the British that they be made under supervision of the newly formed Department of Antiquities because the Wall was an ancient relic.[61] There was an error Please try again Thank you for signing up. Over time the increased numbers of people gathering at the site resulted in tensions between the Jewish visitors who wanted easier access and more space and the residents who complained of the noise.[30] This gave rise to Jewish attempts at gaining ownership of the land adjacent to. On J a Ner Tamid an oil-burning "eternal light," was installed within the prayer hall within Wilson's Arch the first eternal light installed in the area of the Western Wall.[117] According to the Western Wall Heritage Foundation requests had been made for many years that "an o oil lamp be placed in the prayer hall of the Western Wall Plaza as is the custom in Jewish synagogues to represent the menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem as well as the continuously burning fire on the altar of burnt offerings in front of the Temple," especially in the closest place to those ancient flames.[117] Article The False Consensus Effect and Why We Think Others Are Just Like Us Article Illustration by Joshua Seong © Verywell 2018. Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kaindenover discusses the mystical aspect of the Hebrew word kotel when discussing the significance of praying against a wall He cites the Zohar which writes that the word kotel ing wall is made up of two parts: "Ko" which has the numerical value of God’s name and "Tel" ing mount which refers to the Temple and its Western Wall.[131] This wall is visited by all our brothers on every feast and festival; and the large space at its foot is often so densely filled up that all cannot perform their devotions here at the same time It is also visited though by less numbers on every Friday afternoon and by some nearly every day No one is molested in these visits by the Mahomedans as we have a very old firman from the Sultan of Constantinople that the approach shall not be denied to us though the Porte obtains for this privilege a special tax which is however quite insignificant.[45] "the Western Wall – all its various parts structures and gates – are an inseparable part of the al-Aqsa compound The Western Wall is part of Al-Aqsa's western tower which the Israeli establishment fallaciously and sneakily calls the 'Wailing Wall' The wall is part of the holy al-Aqsa Mosque".[181] A few months later Haj Amin complained to Chancellor that "Jews were bringing benches and tables in increased numbers to the wall and driving nails into the wall and hanging lamps. In November 2010 an official paper published by the PA Ministry of Information denied Jewish rights to the Wall It stated that "Al-Buraq Wall is in fact the western wall of Al-Aksa Mosque" and that Jews had only started using the site for worship after the 1917 Balfour Declaration.[186] Yitzhak Reiter writes that "the Islamization and de-Judaization of the Western Wall are a recurrent motif in publications and public statements by the heads of the Islamic Movement in Israel."[187] In 1919 Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann approached the British Military Governor of Jerusalem Colonel Sir Ronald Storrs and offered between £75,000[58] and £100,000[59] (approx £5m in modern terms) to purchase the area at the foot of the Wall and rehouse the occupants Storrs was enthusiastic about the idea because he hoped some of the money would be used to improve Muslim education Although they appeared promising at first negotiations broke down after strong Muslim opposition.[59][60] Storrs wrote two decades later: Herod's Temple was destroyed by the Romans along with the rest of Jerusalem in 70 CE,[25] during the First Jewish-Roman War. After the 1967 Arab-Israeli war Rabbi Yehuda Meir Getz was named the overseer of proceedings at the wall.[123] After Rabbi Getz's death in 1995 Rabbi Shmuel Rabinowitz was given the position.[124] Some medieval rabbis claimed that today's Western Wall is a surviving wall of the Temple itself and cautioned Jews from approaching it lest they enter the Temple precincts in a state of impurity.[129] Many contemporary rabbis believe that the rabbinic traditions were made in reference to the Temple Mount's Western Wall which accordingly endows the Wall with inherent holiness.[130] Most secular scholars believe however that these traditions originally pertained to a western wall of the Temple itself and since the 1500s were gradually applied to the surviving retaining Western Wall of. In 1994 Shlomo Goren wrote that the tradition of the wall as a Jewish prayer site was only 300 years old the Jews being compelled to pray there after being forbidden to assemble on the mount itself.[177] Psychologist Edward Thorndike first coined the term in a 1920 paper titled "The Constant Error in Psychological Ratings." In the experiment described in the paper Thorndike asked commanding officers in the military to evaluate a variety of qualities in their subordinate soldiers These characteristics included such things as leadership physical appearance intelligence loyalty and dependability. At the southern end of the Western Wall Robinson's Arch along with a row of vaults once supported stairs ascending from the street to the Temple Mount.[101] Because it does not come under the direct control of the Rabbi of the Wall or the Ministry of Religious Affairs the site has been opened to religious groups that hold worship services that would not be approved by the Rabbi or the Ministry in the major men's and women's prayer areas against. In 1922 a agreement issued by the mandatory authority forbade the placing of benches or chairs near the Wall The last occurrence of such a ban was in 1915 but the Ottoman decree was soon retracted after intervention of the Chacham Bashi In 1928 the District Commissioner of Jerusalem Edward Keith-Roach acceded to an Arab request to implement the ban This led to a British officer being stationed at the Wall making sure that Jews were prevented from sitting Nor were Jews permitted to separate the sexes with a screen In practice a flexible modus vivendi had emerged and such screens had been put up from time to time when large numbers of people gathered. "being judged before you today stands a nation that has been deprived of everything that is dear and sacred to it from its emergence in its own land – the graves of its patriarchs the graves of its great kings the graves of its holy prophets and above all the site of its glorious Temple Everything has been taken from it and of all the witnesses to its sanctity only one vestige remains – one side of a tiny portion of a wall which on one side borders the place of its former Temple In front of this bare stone wall that nation stands under the open sky in the heat of summer and in the rains of winter and pours out its heart to its God in heaven."[72] Following Israel's victory during the 1967 Six-Day War the Western Wall came under Israeli control Brigadier Rabbi Shlomo Goren proclaimed after its capture that "Israel would never again relinquish the Wall" a stance supported by Israeli Minister for Defence Moshe Dayan and Chief of Staff General Yitzhak Rabin.[86] Rabin described the moment Israeli soldiers reached. 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In 2005 the Western Wall Heritage Foundation initiated a major renovation effort under Rabbi-of-the-Wall Shmuel Rabinovitch Its goal was to renovate and restore the area within Wilson's Arch the covered area to the left of worshipers facing the Wall in the open prayer plaza in order to increase access for visitors and for prayer.[113][114] According to Eyal Weizman Chaim Herzog who later became Israel's sixth president took much of the credit for the destruction of the neighbourhood: When we visited the Wailing Wall we found a toilet attached to it we decided to remove it and from this we came to the conclusion that we could evacuate the entire area in front of the Wailing Wall a historical opportunity that will never return We knew that the following Saturday [sic Wednesday] June 14 would be the Jewish festival of Shavuot and that many will want to come to pray it all had to be completed. Article What Is the Psychology Behind People's Prejudices? Article Rabbi Joseph Schwarz (he) writing in the mid-19th-century records: Thorndike's goal was to determine how ratings of one quality bled over to assessments of other characteristics He found that high ratings of a particular quality correlated to high ratings of other characteristics while negative ratings of a specific quality also led to lower ratings of other characteristics "The correlations were too high and too even," Thorndike wrote "For example for the three raters next studied the average correlation for physique with intelligence is 31; for physique with leadership 39; and for physique with character 28." Charles Wilson 1881[9] In December 1917 Allied forces under Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem from the Turks Allenby pledged "that every sacred building monument holy spot shrine traditional site endowment pious bequest or customary place of prayer of whatsoever form of the three religions will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred".[57] The new plaza created in 1967 is used for worship and public gatherings including Bar mitzvah celebrations and the swearing-in ceremonies of newly full-fledged soldiers in the Israel Defense Forces Tens of thousands of Jews flock to the wall on the Jewish holidays and particularly on the fast of Tisha B'Av which marks the destruction of the Temple and on Jerusalem Day which commemorates the reunification of Jerusalem in 1967 and the dery of the Wall into Jewish hands. Article How the Bias Influences the Decisions You.

The narrow approximately 120 square metres (1,300 sq ft) pre-1948 alley along the wall used for Jewish prayer was enlarged to 2,400 square metres (26,000 sq ft) with the entire Western Wall Plaza covering 20,000 square metres (4.9 acres) stretching from the wall to the Jewish Quarter.[99] "the flag that flies over the Kotel is the Israeli flag Our holy places the Temple Mount – will remain under Israeli sovereignty forever."[179] The Isaiah Stone located under Robinson's Arch has a carved inscription in Hebrew from Isaiah 66:14: וראיתם ושש לבכם ועצמותיכם כדשא תפרחנה ("And when ye see this your heart shall rejoice and your bones shall flourish like. In 1930 in response to the 1929 riots the British Government appointed a commission "to determine the rights and claims of Muslims and Jews in connection with the Western or Wailing Wall" and to determine the causes of the violence and prevent it in the future The League of Nations approved the commission on condition that the members were not British The Jews requested that the Commission take the following actions: As you read above the halo effect can influence how teachers treat students but it can also impact how students perceive teachers In one study researchers found that when an instructor was viewed as warm and friendly students also rated him as more attractive appealing and likable Marketers take advantage of the halo effect to sell products and services When a celebrity spokesperson endorses a particular item our positive evaluations of that individual can spread to our perceptions of the product itself. Article What Are Afterimages and Why Do They Happen? Article However this attractiveness stereotype can also be a double-edged sword Other studies have found that while people are more likely to ascribe a host of positive qualities to attractive people they are also more likely to believe that good-looking individuals are vain dishonest and likely to use their attractiveness to manipulate others. List 8 Interesting Social Psychology Experiments Article

In the summer of 1929 the Mufti Haj Amin Al Husseinni ordered an opening be made at the southern end of the alleyway which straddled the Wall The former cul-de-sac became a thoroughfare which led from the Temple Mount into the prayer area at the Wall Mules were herded through the narrow alley often dropping excrement This together with other construction projects in the vicinity and restricted access to the Wall resulted in Jewish protests to the British who remained indifferent.[72] Article 5 Myths About Hypnosis - Debunked Article From October 1928 onward Mufti Amin al-Husayni organised a series of measures to demonstrate the Arabs' exclusive claims to the Temple Mount and its environs He ordered new construction next to and above the Western Wall.[69] The British granted the Arabs permission to convert a building adjoining the Wall into a mosque and to add a minaret A muezzin was appointed to perform the Islamic call to prayer and Sufi rites directly next to the Wall These were seen as a provocation by the Jews who prayed at the Wall.[70][71] The Jews protested and tensions increased. In November 2010 the government approved a NIS 85m ($23m) scheme to improve access and infrastructure at. When a British Jew asked the Egyptian authorities in 1840 for permission to re-pave the ground in front of the Western Wall the governor of. A widespread Arab campaign to protest against presumed Jewish intentions and designs to take possession of the Al Aqsa Mosque swept the country and a "Society for the Protection of the Muslim Holy Places" was established.[67] The Vaad Leumi responding to these Arab fears declared in a statement that "We herewith declare emphatically and sincerely that no Jew has ever thought of encroaching upon the rights of Moslems over their own Holy places but our Arab brethren should also recognise the rights of Jews in regard to the places in Palestine which are holy to them."[66] The committee also demanded that the British administration expropriate the wall for. While recognizing the difficulties inherent in any ultimate peace agreement that involves the of Jerusalem the official position of the United States includes a recognition of the importance of the Wall to the Jewish people and has condemned statements that seek to "delegitimize" the relationship between Jews and the area in general and the Western Wall in particular For example in November 2010 the Obama administration "strongly condemned a Palestinian official's claim that the Western Wall in the Old City has no religious significance for Jews and is actually Muslim property." The U.S State Department noted that the United States rejects such a claim as "factually incorrect insensitive and highly provocative."[188] The name Hosh al Buraq appeared on the maps of Wilson's 1865 survey its revised editions of 1876 and 1900 and other maps in the early 20th century.[173] In 1922 it was the street name specified by the official Pro-Jerusalem Council.[174] According to the Palestinian National Authority the Jews did not consider the Wall as a place for worship until after the Balfour Declaration was issued in 1917.[182] The PA-appointed Mufti of Jerusalem Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri believes that the Wall belongs to the Muslims alone.[183] In 2000 he related that "No stone of the Al-Buraq wall has any relation to Judaism The Jews began praying at this wall only in the nineteenth century when they began to develop [national] aspirations." A year later he stated: "there was one moment in the Six-Day War which symbolized the great victory: that was the moment in which the first paratroopers – under Gur's command – reached the stones of the Western Wall feeling the emotion of the place; there never was and never will be another moment like it Nobody staged that moment Nobody planned it in advance Nobody prepared it and nobody was prepared for it; it was as if Providence had directed the whole thing: the paratroopers weeping — loudly and in pain — over their comrades who had fallen along the way the words of the Kaddish prayer heard by Western Wall's stones after 19 years of silence tears of mourning shouts of joy and the singing of "Hatikvah"".[87] Article Can Color Affect Your Mood and Behavior? Article "there is not a single stone in the Wailing Wall relating to Jewish History The Jews cannot legitimately claim this wall neither religiously nor historically The Committee of the League of Nations recommended in 1930 to allow the Jews to pray there in order to keep them quiet But by no s did it acknowledge that the wall belongs to them."[184] — Interviewed by German magazine Die Welt Janu In 2006 Dr Hassan Khader founder of the Al Quds Encyclopedia told PA television that the first connection of the Jews to the Wall is "a recent one which began in the 16th century not ancient like the roots of the Islamic connection".[185] Does your impression of a candidate being a good public speaker lead you to feel that she is also smart kind and hard-working? Does thinking that a particular actor is good-looking also lead you to think that he is a compelling actor? Being aware of the halo effect however does not make it easy to avoid its influence on our perceptions and decisions. The restoration to the men's section included a Torah ark that can house over 100 Torah scrolls in addition to new bookshelves a library heating for the winter and air conditioning for the summer.[113] A new room was also built for the scribes who maintain and preserve the Torah scrolls used at the Wall.[113] New construction also included a women's section,[115] overlooking the men's prayer area so that women could use this separate area to "take part in the services held inside under the Arch" for the. So why do our overall impressions of a person create this halo that influences our evaluations of specific traits? Researchers have found that attractiveness is one factor that can play a role Several different studies have found that when we rate people as good-looking we also tend to believe that they have positive personality traits and that they are more intelligent One study even found that jurors were less likely to believe that attractive people were guilty of criminal behavior. Whilst the wall was considered Muslim property as an integral part of the Haram esh-Sharif and waqf property of the Moroccan Quarter a right of Jewish prayer and pilgrimage existed as part. Gates 1 Jaffa 2 Zion 3 Dung 4 Golden 5 Lions 6 Herod 7 Damascus 8 New (Double Single Tanners') Al-Mawazin Shortly after the Western Wall came under Israeli control in 1967 a tefillin stand was erected with permission from Rabbi Yehuda Meir Getz the first rabbi of the Kotel The stand offers visitors the chance to put on Tefillin a daily Jewish ritual In the months following the Six-Day War an estimated 400,000 Jews observed this ritual at the stand.[167] The stand is staffed by multilingual volunteers and an estimated 100,000 visitors put on tefillin there annually.[168] Job applicants are also likely to feel the impact of the halo effect If a prospective employer views the applicant as attractive or likable they are more likely to also rate the individual as intelligent competent and qualified So the next time you trying to evaluate another person whether it is deciding which political candidate to vote for or which movie to see on a Friday night consider how your overall impressions of an individual might influence your evaluations of other characteristics. Over the centuries land close to the Wall became built up Public access to the Wall was through the Moroccan Quarter a labyrinth of narrow alleyways In May 1840 a firman issued by Ibrahim Pasha forbade the Jews to pave the passageway in front of the Wall It also cautioned them against "raising their voices and displaying their books there." They were however allowed "to pay visits to it as. Many contemporary Orthodox scholars rule that the area in front of the Wall has the of a synagogue and must be treated with due respect.[125] This is the view upheld by the authority in charge of the wall As such men and married women are expected to cover their heads upon approaching the Wall and to dress appropriately When departing the custom is to walk backwards away from the Wall.[125] On Saturdays it is forbidden to enter the area with electronic devices including cameras which infringe on the sanctity of the Sabbath. In 1928 the Zionist Organisation reported that John Chancellor High Commissioner of Palestine believed that the Western Wall should come under Jewish control and wondered "why no great Jewish philanthropist had not bought. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. In December 1973 King Faisal of Saudi Arabia stated that "Only Muslims and Christians have holy places and rights in Jerusalem" The Jews he maintained had no rights there at all As for the Western Wall he said "Another wall can be built for them They can pray against that".[180] Raed Salah leader of the northern branch of the Islamic Movement in Israel. The next four courses consisting of smaller plainly dressed stones are Umayyad work (8th century Early Muslim period).[21] Above that are 16–17 courses of small stones from the Mamluk period (13–16th century). A complex of buildings against the wall at the southern end of the plaza that included Madrasa Fakhriya and the house that the Abu al-Sa'ud family had occupied since the 16th century were spared in the 1967 destruction but demolished in 1969.[97][98] The section of the wall dedicated to prayers was thus extended southwards to double its original length from 28 to 60 metres (92 to 197 ft) while the 4 metres (13 ft) space facing the wall grew to 40 metres (130 ft). Some Orthodox Jewish codifiers warn against inserting fingers into the cracks of the Wall as they believe that the breadth of the Wall constitutes part of the Temple Mount itself and retains holiness while others who permit doing so claim that the Wall is located outside the Temple area.[134][non-primary source needed] A poll carried out in 2007 by the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies indicated that 96% of Israeli Jews were against Israel relinquishing the Western Wall.[178] During a speech at Israel's Mercaz HaRav yeshivah on Jerusalem Day in 2009 Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu declared: The Commission noted that 'the Jews do not claim any proprietorship to the Wall or to the Pavement in front of it (concluding speech of Jewish Counsel Minutes page 908).' David Yellin Head of the Hebrew Teachers Seminary member of the Ottoman parliament and one of the first public figures to join the Zionist movement openly,[76] testified before the Commission He stated: Eighteenth-Century scholar Jonathan Eybeschutz writes that "after the destruction of the Temple God removed His Presence from His sanctuary and placed it upon the Western Wall where it remains in its holiness and honour".[132] It is told that great Jewish sages including Isaac Luria and the Radvaz experienced a revelation of the Divine Presence at.